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The Basics of Wiring

In the simplest terms, wiring is the installation of cables throughout a structure. These cables are then connected to associated devices such as switches, distribution boards, sockets, and light fittings. Read on to learn the factors to consider before implementing wiring. For example, it is important to use insulated wires for long-term durability and scalability and to choose high-temperature cables.

Wiring

In the field of electrical wiring, insulation is an important element. The insulation material acts as a protective barrier for the wire and communicates various messages. The color of the insulation material indicates its intended application. For instance, a red insulated wire is used for the positive side of a circuit, while a black insulated wire is used for the negative side. In addition, green-colored wires are used for the insulated ground line.

Wire insulation can be made of many different materials, including polyethylene, rubber, and fluoropolymer. Polyethylene, for example, is an inexpensive material with good chemical and fire resistance. PVC is also a good choice for insulation because it is non-toxic and abrasion-resistant.

Insulated wires are a good choice for applications in which operating temperatures are high. These wires are typically molded and coated with a heat-resistant organic resin. Common materials include polyvinyl chloride, chlorinated polyethylene, nylon, silicone, and polyester.

Different types of insulated wires have different electrical properties. For instance, insulated copper wires, which are 22 gauge, can transmit up to 8 amperes of electricity, depending on the type of insulation and ambient temperature. Knowing what voltage ranges a wire can handle before buying it is essential when selecting insulated wires.

The main reason for using insulated wires is safety. When wires are left exposed, they can cause shock or electrical explosions. In some cases, exposed wires can even cause an electrical fire. The insulation reduces the risk of fire by keeping the wires safe from electrical shock. Further, insulating wires reduce leakage and increase efficiency. They also protect the wire from corrosion and other damage.

While insulated wires can be used for a variety of different applications, they are especially beneficial for close-spaced applications. For example, they are the best choice for connecting machines that need to be close together. In addition, they can avoid wire crossings caused by different colors. Red Alloy Wires can receive power from a block.

Color-coded wires are wires that are identified by color combination. These wires are typically used in telecommunications. There are two basic color coding schemes. First, one uses a 25-pair color coding system, also known as even-count color coding. This system is used to identify individual conductors within twisted-pair wiring.

Second, grounding wires connect to outlets, fixtures, and switches. They may also connect to the housing or metal appliance frames. Always be extremely careful when dealing with electrical wiring, as electrical incidents can cause major damage to property. Before you begin working on an electrical wire, make sure you turn the circuit breaker off so that you don’t accidentally turn it on or touch it.

Third, colored wiring helps electricians identify conductors easily. This system is important to prevent the risk of short circuits and electric shock. Previously, electrical wires were either black or white. In order to properly identify conductors, electricians had to determine phase and zero. Nowadays, color coding is applied along the entire length of a conductor to make it easier to switch wires and identify their functions.

Color-coded wiring is used in many electrical systems, including homes and offices. While there are some exceptions, it is common practice in the United States to label all wires in the same color. The wires should be identified with the correct color code when being installed, as well as with the appropriate disconnection point. This method can help you avoid costly mistakes, make your job safer, and make future maintenance more accurate.

In the States, the ground wire should be green with a yellow stripe. Neutral wires should be white or gray. Color-coded wires are especially important in electrical installations, as misidentifying these wires can cause problems.

Wire sizing involves knowing the diameter of a wire, known as the wire gauge. This will help you determine the safe amount of electrical current it can carry and its weight. Wire sizing is a crucial part of any electrical project. If you’re unsure of the proper size for your project, ask a professional.

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What Does an Electrician Do?

Electricians specialize in wiring for stationary machines, buildings, and transmission lines. The electrician’s job also includes the installation of new electrical components and the maintenance of existing electrical infrastructure. These professionals work under the direction of a licensed electrical contractor or a licensed electrical engineer. However, an electrician can also work in any number of other settings.Electrician

The work environment for electricians depends on their location and the type of work they do. Some electricians work outdoors on power systems, while others work inside in tight spaces. They may have to handle hazardous parts or equipment and must follow safety protocols. Electricians may be employed by construction or appliance companies, or they may be self-employed. They may travel a lot for their work.

Electricians need to be well-versed in electrical systems, and they should have strong cognitive skills and be able to analyze technical documents. They also need to be physically fit, as they may be working on their feet for hours a day. They may work alone or on a team with little supervision, which means that they must have the ability to manage their time well.

Apprentices learn on the job and must complete a four or five-year apprenticeship program. To become an apprentice, an applicant must be at least 18 years old and have completed at least one year of algebra. In addition, he or she must take an aptitude test and undergo a drug test.

Fortunately, there is a good job outlook for electricians. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, there will be a 14 percent increase in the number of new jobs created between 2014 and 2024. This growth will be fueled by the increased need for electrical wiring in both homes and commercial properties.

Depending on the location, electricians may work in a comfortable environment, or they may work in harsh conditions. For example, electricians may have to climb scaffoldings to reach certain areas of a construction site. They may also have to work outdoors, in all types of weather. They may also be required to wear personal protective equipment while they are working.

Physical requirements for electricians vary depending on the job. Some electricians need to be able to bend and frequently stretch, while others may have to climb ladders or carry heavy equipment. They must be in good general health and able to work long hours. The job also requires continual training as new BSI codes and the National Electric Code are added.

To become an electrician, you must complete an apprenticeship program. Apprenticeships are often two or four years long. In addition to the apprenticeship program, you’ll need to complete a state-approved electrician licensing test. The exam will consist of questions related to the National Electrical Code, state electrical codes, and local electrical codes.

Electricians may work alone or as part of a team. They must maintain good communication skills with nonelectrical construction workers. They must also be able to work in cramped, noisy environments. Ultimately, they have to ensure that the job is completed safely and efficiently. In addition, they must be in excellent physical condition to work long hours in difficult environments.

In addition to meeting the physical requirements for electricians, you’ll also need to complete continuing education courses. These classes usually relate to changes in the electrical code and safety practices. They may also involve training from specific manufacturers. Electricians also need to be familiar with various electrical systems and wires, as well as be able to identify them by color. Moreover, you’ll need to be able to communicate with customers and answer their questions in a professional manner. Lastly, you’ll need to be able to perform electrical tests and use the results to determine the problem.

Electricians are responsible for installing, repairing, and maintaining electrical power systems. They also need to make sure that their work meets safety and code standards. As of May 2018, there were 655,840 electricians working in the States. They use a variety of hand and power tools to test electrical systems and diagnose problems. They also plan the layout of electrical wiring and install electrical fixtures. Electricians must adhere to regulations and safety standards set by the National Electrical Code.

 

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Dryer Booster Fan: What Is It And How Does It Work?

Residential>Troubleshooting & Repair ServicesGFCI OutletsAFCI BreakersWhole House Surge ProtectionElectrical Safety InspectionsSmoke & CO DetectorsGenerator InstallationElectrical Panel UpgradesDedicated CircuitsIndoor LightingLandscape LightingFan InstallationPool & Hot Tub WiringEV Charger InstallationWhole House RewiringHome Theater InstallationCommercial>Troubleshooting & Repair ServicesDedicated Computer CircuitsElectrical Safety InspectionsSurge ProtectionGenerator InstallationElectrical Panel UpgradesBucket Truck ServicesEquipment HookupsIndoor & Outdoor LightingReviewsAreas We Serve>Montgomery County, PABucks County, PAChester County, PADelaware County, PABerks County, PAPhiladelphia County, PAPhotosOur TeamBlogDealsCommunity OutreachCompaniesCareersAccomplishments

Dryer Booster Fan: What Is It And How Does It Work?

We recently got a call from a customer this week who was in need of a dryer booster fan replacement. We realized we haven’t done a blog about one of these bad boys yet, so of course it was a no-brainer that we write one today! Let’s get right into what a dryer vent booster fan is, how it works, why you may need one, and who to call for installation.

 

 

 

 

What Is A Dryer Booster Fan?

A dryer vent booster fan is a fan that connects to your dryer duct to help increase airflow. The boost in airflow with a fan like this allows for the successful removal of built-up dryer lint in your ductwork, as well as efficient drying time of your clothing.

 

 

How Do Dryer Booster Fans Work?

Dryer booster fans utilize backward inclined blades to effectively pull air out of the duct while allowing for other debris like dryer lint to pass through. 

 

 

Do I Need A Dryer Vent Fan?

You may need a booster fan for your dryer if you are experiencing long drying times, if your duct run for your dryer is over 25 feet long, or if your duct run for your dryer has multiple bends. If you are noticing that you need continual duct cleanouts from dryer lint and debris, you may also benefit from a booster fan for your dryer.

 

 

Benefits of Dryer Booster Fans

Extended ventilation.Reduced drying time for your clothing.Reduced energy consumption since your dryer won’t be running as long. (50% or more!)Reduce fire hazard of lint build-up.You won’t need continuous duct cleanouts from a professional. (saves you cash!)

 

 

Who Can Install My Dryer Booster Fan?

Hire a professional who is licensed and insured to install your new dryer vent fan. The master electricians at KB Electric LLC can help install any and all types of booster fans for any ductwork. We are licensed and insured, versed in the NEC (National Electric Code), and our techs have the proper tools and equipment for safe installation. Call us today! (267)-467-3178. 

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The post Dryer Booster Fan: What Is It And How Does It Work? appeared first on KB Electric LLC.

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Hardwired vs Plug-In EV Charging Installation: Which Is Better?

Residential>Troubleshooting & Repair ServicesGFCI OutletsAFCI BreakersWhole House Surge ProtectionElectrical Safety InspectionsSmoke & CO DetectorsGenerator InstallationElectrical Panel UpgradesDedicated CircuitsIndoor LightingLandscape LightingFan InstallationPool & Hot Tub WiringEV Charger InstallationWhole House RewiringHome Theater InstallationCommercial>Troubleshooting & Repair ServicesDedicated Computer CircuitsElectrical Safety InspectionsSurge ProtectionGenerator InstallationElectrical Panel UpgradesBucket Truck ServicesEquipment HookupsIndoor & Outdoor LightingReviewsAreas We Serve>Montgomery County, PABucks County, PAChester County, PADelaware County, PABerks County, PAPhiladelphia County, PAPhotosOur TeamBlogDealsCommunity OutreachCompaniesCareersAccomplishments

Hardwired vs Plug-In EV Charging Installation: Which Is Better?

If you are on the market for a new electric vehicle (EV), you’re probably doing a lot of research on the best options for charging one. KB Electric LLC has been doing EV charger installations for quite some time, and the calls keep coming in to get them done. Many EV owners purchase a level 2 charger and have one of our master electricians install it for them. There are two options when installing your level 2 EV charger: a hardwired vs plug-in EV charging installation. So, which is better? Let’s take a look at what a level 2 EV charger is, the two options for installing one, and which option KB Electric LLC recommends for installation.

Before we dabble with the details, no matter the hardwired type or plug-in, EV chargers should be installed by a professional. KB Electric LLCalways recommends that a licensed and insured electrician installs your EV home charger, especially if it is hardwired.

 


Hardwired EV Charging Installation – Tesla Charger

 

What Is a Level 2 EV Charger?

A Level 2 EV Charger utilizes a 240v outlet, also known as a NEMA 50r receptacle (when not hardwired). This outlet is the same as the one your clothing dryer uses (if you don’t have a hardwired dryer). Level 2 EV chargers can take up to 6.5 hours to fully charge the battery using a brand like the ClipperCreek LEVEL 2 HCS-40PR. For most brands of EVs, level 2 chargers are typically 3 to 5 times faster to fully charge the battery than a level 1 EV charger (utilizes a 120v outlet). 

There are so many brands of level 2 EV chargers on the market. Most of these EV chargers can be installed inside or outside of your garage. Most of the level 2 EV chargers can also be hardwired instead of plugged in using the 240v outlet. What does hardwiring your EV charger entail? Let’s go over it.

 

Hardwired vs Plug-In EV Charging Installation 

Hardwired

With a hardwired EV charging installation, an electrician installs a dedicated 60AMP line from your main electrical panel to the desired EV charger location. At KB Electric LLC, we install a fire-rated backboard, as well as the NEC code required sub-panel to terminate power to the unit if needed. For this installation, the EV charging unit does not utilize a 240v outlet since it is hardwired into your main panel. 

 

Hardwired EV Charger Installation
Hardwired EV Charger Installation

 

Plug-In

With a plug-in EV charging installation, an electrician installs a 240v outlet also known as a NEMA 50r receptacle, at the desired EV charger location to plug into. 

 

Plug-In EV Charger Installation
Plug-In EV Charger Installation – NEMA 50r (240v) Receptacle

 

Plug-In EV Charger Installation - NEMA 50r (240v) Receptacle
Plug-In EV Charger Installation – NEMA 50r (240v) Receptacle

 

Should I Get A Hardwired or Plug-In EV Charger Installation?

At all comes down to preference. Personally for the owner at KB Electric LLC, the hardwired option looks the cleanest. So you can say it all comes down to aesthetic appeal. Just take a look at the two pictures above in the hardwired section of this blog . The cord on the EV charger rolls up nicely, and you don’t have any wires hanging down. It also poses less of a trip hazard from the cord being left out. Either way, the hardwired or the plug-in EV charger install can be executed by the master electricians at KB Electric LLC. Call us today for your EV charging installation! (267) 467-3178

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4-Prong OutletsAbout KB Electric LLCAttic FansBallast ReplacementBathroom LightingCable Outlet InstallationCarbon Monoxide DetectorsCeiling Fan InstallationChandelier InstallationChristmas Light SafetyCircuit BreakersCommercial Electrical Safety InspectionsCommercial ElectricianCommercial LightingCurrent Events with ElectricityCurrent Events: EnergyDeck LightingDeck Receptacles/OutletsDedicated CircuitsDeicing CablesDimmer SwitchesDisposing Light BulbsDoorbellsDryer Booster FansElectricity and Energy InnovationsElectric Baseboard Heater InstallationElectric Car Charging InstallationElectric Radiant Floor HeatingElectrical InformationElectrical InnovationsElectrical Panel UpgradeElectrical Remodeling ServicesElectrical Safety InspectionsElectrician vs. Electrical InspectorElectricity BillElectromagnetic FieldsEmergency DisconnectsEmergency Lighting and Exit Sign LightingEnergy Saving TipsEthernet Wall JacksEV Charging SafetyExhaust FansFestoon LightingGarage WiringGeneratorsGFCIsHigh Bay LightingHire a Licensed ElectricianHistory of Ceiling FansHistory of the Dimmer SwitchHistory of Electric CarsHome Electric Car Charging InstallationHot Tub WiringHouse RewireIn The NewsIntercom SystemsKitchen LightingKnob & Tube WiringLED Ballast BypassLED Christmas LightsLED Retrofit LightingLEDsLi-Fi TechnologyLight Color TemperatureLightingLightning FactsLow Voltage Landscape LightingMotion SensorsMoonlightingOutlet SafetyOutdoor Ceiling FansOutdoor Home Security Lighting TipsOutdoor Lamp PostsOutdoor LightingOutdoor Outlet CoversOutdoor Receptacles/OutletsOutdoor Shed WiringParking Lot LightingPendant LightingPhotocell SensorsPool WiringPower and Communication PolesProperty Management ElectricianRange HoodsRecessed LightsRecessed OutletsRenewable EnergyRomex WiringRV Home Electrical HookupSafety & PreventionShed WiringSingle Phase to Three PhaseSmall BusinessesSmart Light SwitchesSmart OutletsSmart ThermostatsSmoke DetectorsSolar Powered ElectricitySpace HeatersStorefront LightingSurge ProtectionSwimming Pool Electrical SafetySwimming Pool Area LightingSwimming Pool LightingThanksgiving FunTools of the TradeTrack Lighting InstallationTransformersTunable White LEDsTV Wall Mount InstallationTwist Lock ReceptaclesUnder Cabinet LightingUSB OutletsVideo Doorbells

The post Hardwired vs Plug-In EV Charging Installation: Which Is Better? appeared first on KB Electric LLC.

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LED Strobe Light Smoke Alarm Installation For Hearing Impaired: KB Electric LLC

Residential>Troubleshooting & Repair ServicesGFCI OutletsAFCI BreakersWhole House Surge ProtectionElectrical Safety InspectionsSmoke & CO DetectorsGenerator InstallationElectrical Panel UpgradesDedicated CircuitsIndoor LightingLandscape LightingFan InstallationPool & Hot Tub WiringEV Charger InstallationWhole House RewiringHome Theater InstallationCommercial>Troubleshooting & Repair ServicesDedicated Computer CircuitsElectrical Safety InspectionsSurge ProtectionGenerator InstallationElectrical Panel UpgradesBucket Truck ServicesEquipment HookupsIndoor & Outdoor LightingReviewsAreas We Serve>Montgomery County, PABucks County, PAChester County, PADelaware County, PABerks County, PAPhiladelphia County, PAPhotosOur TeamBlogDealsCommunity OutreachCompaniesCareersAccomplishments

LED Strobe Light Smoke Alarm Installation For Hearing Impaired: KB Electric LLC

Many people don’t realize that there are different types of smoke alarms for the hearing impaired that can be installed. If you are in need of a LED strobe light smoke alarm installation, the electricians at KB Electric LLC can hook you up! We provide any and all smoke alarm installations for anyone residing in the Montgomery County, PA area, as well as Berks, Bucks, Chester, and Delaware, PA counties.

 


LED Strobe Light Smoke Alarm

 

 

What Is A LED Strobe Light Smoke Alarm? 

A LED strobe light smoke alarm is a type of smoke detector for the hearing impaired. Just like a common smoke detector, the LED strobe light smoke detector can detect smoke, heat, and CO. The LED strobe light smoke alarm works by using a photoelectric sensor that alerts the homeowner of the danger, emitting a flashing light via a smart strobe. There are usually two types of different flashing patterns to distinguish between smoke and carbon monoxide.

A common brand for this would the First Alert Hardwired LED Strobe Light Smoke Alarm with 10-Year Sealed Battery – 7020BSL (just a smoke detector), and the First Alert Hardwired Smoke & CO Alarm with LED Strobe Light and 10-Year Sealed Battery – 7030BSL (smoke and CO combination detector).

Most LED strobe light smoke/CO alarms can be hardwired and interconnected.

 

What Is a LED Strobe Light Device?

There are also LED strobe light devices that aren’t smoke detectors, but are just devices that signal a light pattern. These devices interconnect with your existing smoke/CO alarms, but don’t necessarily “detect” the smoke, heat and CO. When your other regular smoke and CO detectors around your home sound, the device with the LED strobe light will go off with your other detectors, emitting a flashing light. A common brand for this would be the First Alert Hardwired Hearing Impaired LED Strobe Light – SLED177.

The LED strobe lights can be interconnected and hardwired with your existing smoke and CO detectors.

 

Hire KB Electric LLC For LED Strobe Light Smoke Alarm Installation

Need an electrician to help you install a LED strobe light smoke detector? One of our licensed and insured electricians at KB Electric LLC can perform any LED strobe light smoke alarm installation for you. Our electricians are versed in the NEC (National Electric Code) for compliance, and know the ins and outs of wiring your new smoke/CO detector. Whether you need a LED strobe light smoke alarm or a regular smoke alarm installed, call the team of highly skilled electricians to help you out. (267) 467-3178

CATEGORIES

4-Prong OutletsAbout KB Electric LLCAttic FansBallast ReplacementBathroom LightingCable Outlet InstallationCarbon Monoxide DetectorsCeiling Fan InstallationChandelier InstallationChristmas Light SafetyCircuit BreakersCommercial Electrical Safety InspectionsCommercial ElectricianCommercial LightingCurrent Events with ElectricityCurrent Events: EnergyDeck LightingDeck Receptacles/OutletsDedicated CircuitsDeicing CablesDimmer SwitchesDisposing Light BulbsDoorbellsDryer Booster FansElectricity and Energy InnovationsElectric Baseboard Heater InstallationElectric Car Charging InstallationElectric Radiant Floor HeatingElectrical InformationElectrical InnovationsElectrical Panel UpgradeElectrical Remodeling ServicesElectrical Safety InspectionsElectrician vs. Electrical InspectorElectricity BillElectromagnetic FieldsEmergency DisconnectsEmergency Lighting and Exit Sign LightingEnergy Saving TipsEthernet Wall JacksEV Charging SafetyExhaust FansFestoon LightingGarage WiringGeneratorsGFCIsHigh Bay LightingHire a Licensed ElectricianHistory of Ceiling FansHistory of the Dimmer SwitchHistory of Electric CarsHome Electric Car Charging InstallationHot Tub WiringHouse RewireIn The NewsIntercom SystemsKitchen LightingKnob & Tube WiringLED Ballast BypassLED Christmas LightsLED Retrofit LightingLEDsLi-Fi TechnologyLight Color TemperatureLightingLightning FactsLow Voltage Landscape LightingMotion SensorsMoonlightingOutlet SafetyOutdoor Ceiling FansOutdoor Home Security Lighting TipsOutdoor Lamp PostsOutdoor LightingOutdoor Outlet CoversOutdoor Receptacles/OutletsOutdoor Shed WiringParking Lot LightingPendant LightingPhotocell SensorsPool WiringPower and Communication PolesProperty Management ElectricianRange HoodsRecessed LightsRecessed OutletsRenewable EnergyRomex WiringRV Home Electrical HookupSafety & PreventionShed WiringSingle Phase to Three PhaseSmall BusinessesSmart Light SwitchesSmart OutletsSmart ThermostatsSmoke DetectorsSolar Powered ElectricitySpace HeatersStorefront LightingSurge ProtectionSwimming Pool Electrical SafetySwimming Pool Area LightingSwimming Pool LightingThanksgiving FunTools of the TradeTrack Lighting InstallationTransformersTunable White LEDsTV Wall Mount InstallationTwist Lock ReceptaclesUnder Cabinet LightingUSB OutletsVideo Doorbells

The post LED Strobe Light Smoke Alarm Installation For Hearing Impaired: KB Electric LLC appeared first on KB Electric LLC.

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What is Switch Gear? And its main Function in Electrical System

Switch Gear:

The apparatus used for controlling, regulating and switching on or off the electrical circuit in the electrical power system is known as switch gear. It also includes the combination of switching devices with associated control, measuring, protecting and regulating equipment. The switch gear devices and their assemblies are used in connection with the generation, transmission, distribution, and conversion of electrical energy. We all are familiar with low voltage switches and re-wireable fuses in our homes. Switches are used for opening and closing an electric circuit while fuses are used for over-current and short circuit protection. In such a way, every electrical device wants a switching and a protecting device. Various forms of switching and protective devices have been developed. Thus, switch gear can be taken as a general term covering a wide range of equipment concerned with the switching, protection, and control of various electrical equipment.

The main functions of switch gear are,

:• Electrical protection
• Electrical isolation of sections of an installation
• Local or remote switching

• Electrical protection in Switch Gear:

The aim is to avoid or to limit the destructive or dangerous consequences of excessive (short circuit) currents, or those due to overloading and insulation failure, and to separate the defective circuit from the rest of the installation. A distinction is made between the protection of:

• The elements of the installation (cables, wires, switch gear…)

• Persons and animals

• Equipment and appliances supplied from the installation

The protection of circuits

• Against overload; a condition of excessive current being drawn from a healthy (unfaulted) installation.

• Against short-circuit currents due to complete failure of insulation between conductors of different phases or (in TN systems) between a phase and neutral (or PE) conductor.
Protection in these cases is provided either by fuses or circuit-breaker, in the distribution board at the origin of the final circuit (i.e. the circuit to which the load is connected).

The protection of persons

• Against insulation failures. According to the system of earthing for the installation (TN, TT or IT) the protection will be provided by fuses or circuit-breakers, residual current devices, and/or permanent monitoring of the insulation resistance of the installation to earth.

The protection of electric motors

• Against overheating, due, for example, to long term overloading, stalled rotor, single-phasing, etc. Thermal relays, specially designed to match the particular characteristics of motors are used.
Such relays may, if required, also protect the motor-circuit cable against overload. Short-circuit protection is provided either by type aM fuses or by a circuit-breaker from which the thermal (overload) protective element has been removed, or otherwise made inoperative.

• Isolation

The aim of isolation is to separate a circuit or apparatus (such as a motor, etc.) from the remainder of a system which is energized, in order that personnel may carry out work on the isolated part in perfect safety.
An isolating device must fulfill the following requirements:

• All poles of a circuit, including the neutral (except where the neutral is a PEN conductor) must open. • It must be provided with a locking system in open position with a key (e.g. by means of a padlock) in order to avoid an unauthorized reclosure by inadvertence

• It must comply with a recognized national or international standard (e.g. IEC 60947-3) concerning clearance between contacts, creepage distances, over voltage withstand capability, etc.

• Switching

In broad terms “control” signifies any facility for safely modifying a load-carrying power system at all levels of an installation. The operation of switchgear is an important part of power-system control.
Functional control
This control relates to all switching operations in normal service conditions for energizing or de-energizing a part of a system or installation, or an individual piece of equipment, item of plant, etc.
Switch gear intended for such duty must be installed at least:

• At the origin of any installation

• At the final load circuit or circuits (one switch may control several loads)

Emergency switching – emergency stop
An emergency switching is intended to de-energize a live circuit which is, or could become, dangerous (electric shock or fire). An emergency stop is intended to halt a movement which has become dangerous.

In the two cases:

• The emergency control device or its means of operation (local or at remote location(s)) such as a large red mushroom-headed emergency-stop push button must be recognizable and readily accessible, in proximity to any position at which danger could arise or be seen.

• A single action must result in a complete switching-off of all live conductors

• A “break glass” emergency switching initiation device is authorized, but in unmanned installations the re-energizing of the circuit can only be achieved by means of a key held by an authorized person.
It should be noted that in certain cases, an emergency system of braking, may require that the auxiliary supply to the braking-system circuits be maintained until final stoppage of the machinery.

Switching-off for mechanical maintenance work

This operation assures the stopping of a machine and its impossibility to be inadvertent restarted while mechanical maintenance work is being carried out on the driven machinery. The shutdown is generally carried out at the functional switching device, with the use of a suitable safety lock and warning notice at the switch mechanism.

Read more about  Switch Gears

Did you miss our previous article…
https://countryelectric.biz/?p=136

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Solar Panels annd Difference Between Monocrystalline and Polycrystalline

Photovoltaic solar panels absorb sunlight as a source of energy to generate direct current electricity. A photovoltaic (PV) module is a packaged, connected assembly of photovoltaic solar cells available in different voltages and wattages.

Photovoltaic modules constitute the photovoltaic array of a photovoltaic system that generates and supplies solar electricity in commercial and residential applications. Difference Between Monocrystalline and Polycrystalline Solar Panels are given below with advantages and advantages of both types. 

Mono-crystalline solar panels:

The mono-crystalline solar panels cells are also known as single crystalline cells. They are incredibly easy to identify because they are a dark black in colour.

Mono-crystalline cells are made from an incredibly pure form of silicon, which makes them the most efficient material for the conversion of sunlight into energy.

Additionally, mono-crystalline cells are also the most space-efficient form of silicon solar cell. They also have the advantage of being the ones that last the longest out of all the silicon-based solar cells.

In fact, many manufacturers will offer warranties of up to 25 years on this type of system – a warranty that lasts half of their expected life. However, while these systems are superior, they do come at quite a hefty price.

Mono-crystalline cells are the most expensive option out of all of the silicon solar cell types, mostly because the four-sided cutting system results in a large amount of waste. Poly-crystalline acts as a cheaper alternative.

 

➢ Advantages of Mono-crystalline solar Cell:

Monocrystalline solar panels have the highest efficiency rates since they are made out of the highest-grade silicon.The efficiency rates of mono-crystalline solar panels are typically 15-20%. Sun Power produces the highest efficiency solar panels on the U.S. market today. Their E20 series provide panel conversion efficiencies of up to 20.1%. Update (April, 2013): Sun Power has now released the X-series at a record-breaking efficiency of 21.5%.Monocrystalline silicon solar panels are space-efficient. Since these solar panels yield the highest power outputs, they also require the least amount of space compared to any other types.Mono-crystalline solar panel produce up to four times the amount of electricity as thin-film solar panels.Mono-crystalline solar panel live the longest. Most solar panel manufacturers put a 25-year warranty on their mono-crystalline solar panel.Tend to perform better than similarly rated poly-crystalline solar panel at low-light conditions.

➢ Disadvantages of Mono-crystalline solar Cell:

Mono-crystalline solar panels are the most expensive.From a financial standpoint, a solar panel that is made of poly-crystalline silicon (and in some cases thin-film) can be a better choice for some homeowners.If the solar panel is partially covered with shade, dirt or snow, the entire circuit can break down. Consider getting micro-inverters instead of central string inverters if you think coverage will be a problem. Micro-inverters will make sure that not the entire solar array is affected by shading issues with only one of the solar panels. The Czochralski process is used to produce mono-crystalline silicon. It results in large cylindrical ingots. Four sides are cut out of the ingots to make silicon wafers. A significant amount of the original silicon ends up as waste.Monocrystalline solar panels tend to be more efficient in warm weather.Performance suffers as temperature goes up, but less so than polycrystalline solar panel. For most home owners temperature is not a concern.

Poly-crystalline silicon Solar Panels:

The polycrystalline solar cells are also known as polysilicon and multi-silicon cells. They were the first solar cells to be developed when the industry started in the 1980s.

Most interestingly, polycrystalline cells do not undergo the same cutting process as the monocrystalline cells. Instead, the silicon is melted and then poured into a square mould. This is what creates the specific shape of the polycrystalline.

One of the benefits of this process is that the solar cells become much more affordable. This is because hardly any silicon is wasted during the manufacturing process.

However, they are less efficient than monocrystalline solar cells, and also require a lot more space. This is due to the fact that they have lower levels of purity than the single crystalline cell models.

Poly-crystalline also has a lower tolerance for heat than mono-crystalline. This means that they are unable to function as efficiently in high temperatures. This can be a massive disadvantage in areas with hot climates.

Solar Panels

➢ Advantages of Poly-crystalline silicon Solar Panels:

The process used to make poly-crystalline silicon is simpler and cost less. The amount of waste silicon is less compared to mono-crystalline.Poly-crystalline solar panel tend to have slightly lower heat tolerance than mono-crystalline solar panel. This technically means that they perform slightly worse than mono-crystalline solar panels in high temperatures.Heat can affect the performance of solar panel and shorten their lifespans. However, this effect is minor, and most homeowners do not need to take it into account.

➢ Disadvantages of Poly-crystalline silicon Solar Panels:

The efficiency of poly-crystalline-based solar panel is typically 13-16%. Because of lower silicon purity, poly-crystalline solar panels are not quite as efficient as mono-crystalline solar panel.Lower space-efficiency. You generally need to cover a larger surface to output the same electrical power as you would with a solar panel made of mono-crystalline silicon. However, this does not mean every mono-crystalline solar panel perform better than those based on poly-crystalline silicon.Mono-crystalline and thin-film solar panels tend to be more aesthetically pleasing since they have a more uniform look compared to the speckled blue color of poly-crystalline silicon.

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Types of Energy Meter and their working Principles

Energy Meter

Energy meter is an instrument which measures amount of electrical energy used by the consumers. Utilities install these instruments at every place like homes, industries, organizations to charge the electricity consumption by loads such as lights, fans and other appliances. When energy savings during certain periods are desired, some meters may measure demand, the maximum use of power in some interval. “Time of day” metering allows electric rates to be changed during a day, to record usage during peak high-cost periods and off-peak, lower-cost, periods. Also, in some areas meters have relays for demand response load shedding during peak load periods.Most interesting type are used as prepaid electricity meters. Types of energy meter are given below with explanation

Basic unit of power is watts. One thousand watts is one kilowatt. If we use one kilowatt in one hour, it is considered as one unit of energy consumed. These meters measure the instantaneous voltage and currents, calculate its product and gives instantaneous power. This power is integrated over a period which gives the energy utilized over that time period.

 

Types of Energy Meter

Energy meter are classified in three basic types accordance with various factors such as:
1. Type of display

2. Technical like single phase, LT, three phases, HT and many more.

3. Type of Usage like domestic, commercial and industrial

4. Type of metering point

Types w.r.t Construction

According to construction energy meter classified into three types which are given below.

1. Electromechanical induction type

2. Electronic Energy Meter

3. Smart Energy Meter

Types w.r.t Phase

According to phase energy meter classified into three types which are given below.

1. Single Phase Energy Meter

2. Three Phase Energy Meter

Electronic Energy Meter

Electronic meters display the energy used on an LCD or LED display, and some can also transmit readings to remote places. In addition to measuring energy used, electronic meters can also record other parameters of the load and supply such as instantaneous and maximum rate of usage demands, voltages, power factor and reactive power used etc. They can also support time-of-day billing, for example, recording the amount of energy used during on-peak and off-peak hours.

These are of accurate, high procession and reliable types of measuring instruments as compared to conventional mechanical meters. It consumes less power and starts measuring instantaneously when connected to load. These meters might be analog or digital. In analog meters, power is converted to proportional frequency or pulse rate and it is integrated by counters placed inside it.

In digital electric meter power is directly measured by high end processor. The power is integrated by logic circuits to get the energy and also for testing and calibration purpose. It is then converted to frequency or pulse rate.

➢ Digital Electronic Energy Meter:

Digital signal processor or high performance microprocessors are used in digital electric meters. Similar to the analog meters, voltage and current transducers are connected to a high resolution ADC. Once it converts analog signals to digital samples, voltage and current samples are multiplied and integrated by digital circuits to measure the energy consumed.

Types of Energy Meter

Microprocessor also calculates phase angle between voltage and current, so that it also measures and indicates reactive power. It is programmed in such a way that it calculates energy according to the tariff and other parameters like power factor, maximum demand, etc and stores all these values in a non volatile memory EEPROM.

It contains real time clock (RTC) for calculating time for power integration, maximum demand calculations and also date and time stamps for particular parameters. Furthermore it interacts with liquid crystal display (LCD), communication devices and other meter outputs. Battery is provided for RTC and other significant peripherals for backup power.

Smart Energy Meter

A smart meter is an electronic device that records consumption of electric energy and communicates the information to the electricity supplier for monitoring and billing. Smart meters typically record energy hourly or more frequently, and report at least daily.

 Smart meters enable two-way communication between the meter and the central system. Such an advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) differs from automatic meter reading (AMR) in that it enables two-way communication between the meter and the supplier. Communications from the meter to the network may be wireless, or via fixed wired connections such as power line carrier (PLC). Wireless communication options in common use include cellular communications (which can be expensive), Wi-Fi (readily available), wireless ad hoc networks over Wi-Fi, wireless mesh networks, low power long range wireless (LoRa), ZigBee (low power, low data rate wireless), and Wi-SUN (Smart Utility Networks).

It is an advanced metering technology involving placing intelligent meters to read, process and feedback the data to customers. It measures energy consumption, remotely switches the supply to customers and remotely controls the maximum electricity consumption. Smart metering system uses the advanced metering infrastructure system technology for better performance.

Types of Energy Meter

These are capable of communicating in both directions. They can transmit the data to the utilities like energy consumption, parameter values, alarms, etc and also can receive information from utilities such as automatic meter reading system, reconnect/disconnect instructions, upgrading of meter software’s and other important messages.

These meters reduce the need to visit while taking or reading monthly bill. Modems are used in these smart meters to facilitate communication systems such as telephone, wireless, fiber cable, power line communications. Another advantage of smart metering is complete avoidance of tampering of energy meter where there is scope of using power in an illegal way.

Read for more about Energy Meters

Did you miss our previous article…
https://countryelectric.biz/?p=123

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Synchronous Motors Main Features and their Applications

Electrical motor in general is an electro-mechanical device that converts energy from electrical domain to mechanical domain.A synchronous electric motor is an AC motor in which, at steady state,[1] the rotation of the shaft is synchronized with the frequency of the supply current; the rotation period is exactly equal to an integral number of AC cycles. Synchronous motors contain multiphase AC electromagnets on the stator of the motor that create a magnetic field which rotates in time with the oscillations of the line current. The rotor with permanent magnets or electromagnets turns in step with the stator field at the same rate and as a result, provides the second synchronized rotating magnet field of any AC motor. A synchronous motor is termed doubly fed if it is supplied with independently excited multiphase AC electromagnets on both the rotor and stator Based on the type of input we have classified it into single phase and 3 phase motors. Synchronous motors are more widely used in industrial

Main Features:

Some of the main features of synchronous motor are as follows:-

  1. Synchronous motors are inherently not self starting.

  2. They require some external means to bring their speed close to synchronous speed to before they are synchronized.

  3. The speed of operation of is in synchronism with the supply frequency.

  4. At supply frequency is constant they behave as constant speed motor irrespective of load condition.

  5. This motor has the unique characteristics of operating under any electrical power factor. This makes it used in electrical for power factor improvement.

 Application Of Synchronous Motors:

  1.As synchronous motor is capable of operating under either leading and lagging power factor, it can be used for power factor improvement.  A synchronous motor under no-load have leading power factor. It is used in power system in place of static capacitors.

 2. Synchronous motor is used where high power at low speed required. Such as rolling mills, chippers, mixers, pumps, pumps, compressor etc.

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Difference between Synchronous and Induction Motor

Both synchronous and induction machines work on AC supply, ie; they are AC machines. For AC machines, the basic requirement is to create a rotational magnetic field so that the rotor can rotate, and energy can be obtained. (mechanical for motor, electrical for alternator) Now, the difference between a synchronous machine and an induction machine is based on how the rotational magnetic field is utilized.

The three phase supply, when given to the stator windings, creates a rotating magnetic field. Now, the rotor of an induction machine is a group of short circuited windings where the rotating magnetic field is to act. The underlying principle is electromagnetic induction, similar to transformers – the rotor gets an induced current, that means – a current carrying loop inside the magnetic field. This makes the rotor rotate. But, if both rotating magnetic field and rotor rotate in the same synchronous speed, there will be no induced EMF inside the rotor, because the field will be then constant w.r.t the rotor, and for rotation, change in flux should be there.

Thus, the rotation happens with a “slip” between the rotor and the stator. The slip refers to the inability of the rotor to catch up with the (speed of) rotating stator magnetic field. Thus rotor will rotate, and output is obtained, if there is slip between the rotor and stator magnetic field. This is the principle of working of an induction machine.

Now, consider am utilizing the rotating magnetic field by making an electromagnet rotate as a rotor, which is fed with a DC supply. In such a case, the machine will run in synchronous speed, and this machine is called a synchronous machine. However, it is to be noted that due to inertia of the rotor, the rotor electromagnet cannot immediately respond to the rotating magnetic field. This means that the synchronous machine does not start by itself. To provide the starting torque, additional winding called “damper winding” is provided in rotor, which make the synchronous machine similar to an induction machine during starting. As the machine starts, the rotor naturally locks up with the rotating magnetic field and rotates in synchronous speed. This means that during normal running conditions, the damper winding will carry no current. (Similar to the rotor winding in an induction machine at synchronous speed)

Differences:

Here are the few Differences between Synchronous and Induction Motor